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Postharvest Crisis acute food insecurity expected in conflict-prone areas of the northeast

  • Food Security Outlook
  • Nigeria
  • July - December 2014
Postharvest Crisis acute food insecurity expected in conflict-prone areas of the northeast

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  • Key Messages
  • National Overview
  • Areas of Concern
  • Events that Might Change the Outlook
  • Key Messages
    • Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food insecurity continues in Borno and Yobe States as conflict impacts household food access. Access to households whose livelihoods and markets are significantly impacted by the conflict remains limited for government and other humanitarian organizations.
    • Households in southern Borno and Yobe States, northeastern Adamawa State, and the Lake Chad region are those most affected by the conflict. Production prospects for households in these areas are poor during this, the main cultivation season. The area is expected to continue to be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) even in the postharvest period through December.
    • Households in northern Borno and Yobe States are expected to face fewer impacts to their cropping season, but harvests will still be significantly below average. The arrival of the new harvest in October is expected to improve household food access as they experience Stressed (IPC Phase 2) acute food insecurity through December.
    • The main cultivation season is progressing typically through much of the rest of the country. Seasonal forecasts call for typical levels of rainfall through the rest of the season. The main harvest, which will begin in October for much of the country, is expected to be at least average for most.

    National Overview
    Current Situation

    The rainy season began timely in most areas across the country. In southern areas of the country the rainfall began during February/March, and in April/May in central areas, while in the northern areas it began in June/July. The growing season is progressing normally in most areas in the south, with major staple food crops such as yams, cassava and maize developing well. Farmers in these areas are currently engaged in weeding and fertilizer application activities. Early green harvest of maize, yam, potatoes and cassava is also underway in the south and some central states, as is expected this time of year. In parts of northern and central states, localized dry spells were observed between June and mid-July, delaying cereal crop planting activities. In many places farmers are engaged in weeding activities in these affected-areas, while others are replanting their crops. Participation in agricultural wage labor activities contributes to provide typical levels of income for poor households during the cultivation season.

    In Niger State, an area affected by poor cropping conditions the last two years, intermittent dry spells have been observed in localized areas resulting in replanting of maize, millet and sorghum. Farmers are currently engaged, however, in harvesting seed melon, water melon, potatoes and groundnuts, increasing labor opportunities, income, food diversity and food access. This will peak in the coming months, increasing food access and reducing the impacts of the ongoing lean season.

    Most households in the north are experiencing a typical lean season at this, the end of the consumption year. Their situation is slightly tempered by the atypical stability of food prices across the country, increased staple food supplies from early green harvests in southern and central states, as well as gifts for Ramadan. This, in combination with good levels of household stocks from 2013 harvests, is contributing to good household food access for most households.

    For pastoralists in northern areas, prices for livestock feed are rising, in line with seasonal trends. On Mina market, prices for crop residuals sold for livestock feed have doubled compared to previous months, contributing to household incomes for poor households. Livestock body conditions continue to follow seasonal trends, and increased livestock demand for Ramadan in July, particularly for beef and poultry, is contributing to favorable sale prices for agropastoralists and pastoralists.

    The good main harvest during the 2013 growing season means most households throughout the country have had typical access to household stocks since at least November 2013. Despite good production, many poor households have exhausted their own production stocks leading up to this lean season, which is typical this time of year. Despite the increased demand for staple foods due to Ramadan, prices on most monitored markets across the country remained stable or declined, when they are typically expected to see a seasonal increase. Millet prices at Dawanau Market in Kano state – the largest cereal market in West Africa – remained at NGN 6,800/100kg bag in June compared to the previous month. On Bida Market in Niger State maize, millet, and sorghum sell for between NGN 5,000 and NGN 5,500/100kg bag in mid-July, while in June they were selling for between NGN 6,000 and NGN 7,000/100kg. Traders are releasing their stocks to meet social obligations during Ramadan, increasing market supply and reducing prices. In the south, the price of white gari (processed cassava) on Bodija Market in Oyo State was 53 percent and 17 percent, respectively, below last year and the five year average levels.

    While most areas in Nigeria are experiencing a typical progression through the consumption year, conflict continues to impact food security in many areas. Inter-communal conflicts in Bauchi, Benue, Kaduna, Nasarawa, Plateau, and Taraba States disrupt agricultural activities and, in some areas, markets as well. Farmer/pastoralist conflicts are also common in these areas, contributing to increased cattle rustling. Though these conflicts do contribute to concerns of reduced food access for affected households, these conflicts are generally in relatively localized areas.

    Much broader civil insecurity persists in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa States, which have been under the federal government state of emergency since March 2013. When looking at the number of fatalities attributable to the conflict, significant escalations in civil insecurity occurred late last year and then again earlier this year (Figure 1). The conflict has contributed to significantly reducing household capacity to continue typical livelihoods and continues to cause both internal and cross-border population displacements. The conflict has also led to reduced market function and trade flows. Major urban markets (including Maiduguri, Potiskum, Damaturu, Mubi, and Yola) are functioning, but only at levels of about half of normal. Most semi-urban markets are not functioning due to disruption by the conflict, and local markets are significantly impacted as well. Trade routes between the northeast and the south are disrupted, with nearly all trade between the northeast and the south now moving through Kano to the west. Despite this, trade between Kano and Borno and Yobe States is only about half of what is typically expected for this time of year. Cross border trade activities along Yobe and Borno State borders with Niger, Chad and Cameroon are only at informal levels.

    The current number of internally displaced due to the conflict is difficult to discern, but a May 2014 assessment led by UNOCHA identified nearly 650,000 persons displaced within Borno, Yobe and Adamawa, as well as to neighboring Bauchi, Gombe and Taraba. A recent assessment by FEWS NET noted that in rural areas highly affected by conflict, nearly three quarters of the population has left for urban centers in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa and to neighboring states and countries. Few displaced households in northeastern Nigeria are in camps as most displaced families stay with friends or are resettled with assistance from the government. Most transhumant pastoralist appear to have left the region.

    Displaced households who remain in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa States appear to be moving toward urban centers (including Maiduguri, Damaturu, and Mubi). Most of these households are transitioning from agricultural/agropastoral livelihoods to more urban livelihoods. While access to official assistance for these households remains difficult, community assistance remains very important for displaced households in meeting their food needs.

    Households that have been displaced to neighboring states (including Bauchi, Gombe and Taraba) are being resettled with the assistance of local State Emergency Management Agencies (SEMA) and the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA). Many of these households appear to have been able to resettle before the start of this cultivation season. Assistance from the government and partners includes nonfood and food stuffs. Given many difficulties in the coordination of resettling activities, the capacity for assistance delivery varies by region.

    People are also fleeing Borno, Yobe and Adamawa States for neighboring Niger, Cameroon and Chad. A majority of the 60,000+ refugees and returnees expected to be in neighboring countries are in the Diffa Region of Niger. A recent assessment by the World Food Program, though, has noted an increase in the rate of people fleeing to Cameroon, with an expected 8,000 people leaving Adamawa for northern Cameroon since May.

    Households who remain in areas highly affected by conflict in southern Borno and Yobe and northern Adamawa have exhausted their own production stocks much more quickly this year than they typically would as conflict last year severely impacted cropping activities and lead to significantly below-average production. While in a typical year, households would be seeking on farm wage labor opportunities to maintain their seasonal incomes at this time of year, their personal security concerns are keeping them from seeking labor opportunities. Market access in these rural areas is also very limited as most sub-urban markets are not functioning or are only functioning irregularly and at very low levels. Households in areas highly affected by conflict depend heavily on community assistance and assistance from family and friends outside of the region.

    Malnutrition rates in Borno and Yobe States remain high. A SMART Survey conducted by the national government with UNICEF in spring 2014 found global acute malnutrition in Yobe State was 15.5 percent (95% CI 11.7, 20.1) and in Borno State it was 13.6 percent (95% CI 9.3, 19.5) (although about 1/3 of Borno State was not sampled due to security reasons). A recent FEWS NET assessment to the Diffa Region of Niger noted reports of increased admissions in health centers for malnutrition thought to be attributable to refugees and returnees from northeastern Nigeria. There are several reports that most health facilities in conflict affected areas are closed, limiting the available assistance for malnourished children.

    Assumptions

    The most likely scenario for the July to December 2014 period is based on the following national-level assumptions:

    • Civil insecurity: Civil insecurity related to the Boko Haram conflict will continue at current levels. This will continue to restrict market and trade activities, especially in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa States in the northeast. It will also keep household from their typical livelihood activities, particularly in southern Borno and Yobe and in northern Adamawa. Cultivation of major cereals will be severely impacted and households will again this year have significantly below-average own production stocks for the coming consumption year.
    • Lean season: Most households that were not directly affected by either flooding last year or continuing conflict will experience a normal lean season, with poor households being more heavily market dependent for their consumption needs than they are the rest of the year. In southern areas, this lean season will end in July, while in the north it will continue until the main harvest in October.
    • Rainy season: The season has been erratic in many areas across the country, particularly in northeast areas between June and mid-July. Based on medium and long-term seasonal forecasts, FEWS NET is assuming beginning in August that the season across the country will progress with near normal levels of precipitation, will not have any atypical dry spells or flooding, and will end normally.
    • Flooding: During the peak of the rainy season between August and September, typical levels of flooding are expected to occur in flood-prone areas along major rivers. Normal levels of assistance should be available to households that might become displaced by this flooding.
    • Main harvest: In light of seasonal forecasts, the 2014 main harvest of most staple and cash crops is expected to be average in October. Sorghum harvests, which occur later in November/December, will also be average.
    • Agricultural labor: Wages from agricultural labor activities will be slightly above normal level in most areas of the country and will follow typical seasonal trends. Wages will peak during periods of high demand for weeding and fertilizer application activities (July/August) and for harvesting activities (in September/October). Migrant labor from neighboring countries will be limited, contributing to increased wages.
    • Livestock body conditions: Animal body conditions will follow normal seasonal trends with improving conditions during the rainy season (July to September) and then stable conditions between October and December as pasture and water availability remain good in the post-rainy season period.
    • Livestock markets: Livestock demand will remain relatively strong with two further peaks in demand by December. Demand for small ruminants will be high in September for Tabaski. Similarly, in December, demand for all livestock will be high for Christmas. Due to this seasonally high demand, livestock prices will be favorable for pastoralists during the entire outlook period through December.
    • Market supply of cereals: Market cereal supplies will be seasonally average between July and September. Between October and December, new harvests will supply markets and improve stock levels. However, the rate of replenishment will be slower than normal due to reduced market replenishment of major staples from the northeast as result of the Boko Haram conflict.
    • Food prices: Staple food prices, particularly for cereals, will continue to remain stable or increase slightly during July and August with the peak of the lean season. In August/September, prices will remain stable or decline as the early green harvest peaks, increasing market supply of cereals as household demand is decreasing. Between October and December, prices will continue to decline seasonally as new harvests reach markets and households purchase needs are significantly less.
    Most Likely Food Security Outcomes

    Staple cereal food prices are stable or declining in both surplus and deficit production areas. Coupled with the early green harvest of yams, maize, potatoes and groundnut as well as the availability of wild green leaves, households in areas that are not directly affected by conflict will be able to use normal livelihood strategies such as cash crop sales, casual labor work, livestock sales, and food loans to access food normally. Consequently, poor households in most areas of the country will continue to face Minimal (IPC Phase 1) acute food insecurity through December 2014.

    In Niger State, worst affected by prolonged dry spells during the previous growing season, poor household have exhausted their own production stocks much earlier than normal this year and are atypically dependent on market purchase for their food access. In July, they continue to face difficulty in meeting all their food needs without foregoing some of their livelihood protection needs, and are experiencing Stressed (IPC Phase 2) acute food insecurity. These households will seek more labor opportunities during the cultivation season, which is progressing typically. In August the early green harvest of seed melon, water melon, potatoes and groundnut will peak, increasing labor opportunities, income, and food access. Staple food prices are expected to remain stable and eventually decrease by October as main harvest stocks reach markets. Poor households in Niger State are expected to begin to face Minimal (IPC Phase 1) outcomes beginning in August due to their increased incomes and atypically stable food prices.

    Poor households affected by the Boko Haram conflict in the northeast will continue to face negative food security outcomes. Between July and October, poor households in Borno and Yobe States, continue to face Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food insecurity as their own production stocks are exhausted much more quickly than typical this year. They also face significantly below-average seasonal incomes and very limited access to markets. Beginning in October, many households in northern Borno and Yobe, relatively less affected by conflict, will have access to new harvests of staple cereals and cash crops, increasing their food availability. These households will experience Stressed (IPC Phase 2) acute food insecurity between October and December. Households in southern Borno and Yobe States, the Lake Chad region, as well as northeastern Adamawa State, are more intensely impacted by the conflict and their harvest production will be more severely impacted. These areas are expected to continue to face Crisis (IPC Phase 3) through December. Much of Adamawa State is less impacted by conflict in the region and poor households in much of the state are expected to experience Stressed (IPC Phase 2) between July and December.


    Areas of Concern

    Northeast Millet, Cowpea and Sesame Livelihood Zone 12 in Borno and Yobe States:

    Gujba local government (Yobe state); Damboa, Jere, Gwoza, Bama, Konduga, Kalabalge, Ngala and Kaga local governments (Borno state)
    Current Situation

    In Borno State, it is estimated that nearly three quarters of the population in Gwoza, Chibok, Damboa, Bama, Konduga, Ngala, Kalabalge and part of Biu local governments have been displaced due to the conflict. For instance in Konduga, the closest local government to Maiduguri, the Borno State capital, about 100 villages have been displaced. Most of the better-off families who are displaced displaced have moved to urban centers within the states, to neighboring states such as Bauchi, Gombe, Taraba while others have moved to nearby local governments to rebuild their livelihoods. However, many of the poor households displaced have moved to neighboring countries such as Cameroon, Niger, and Chad, and others are in neighboring villages or urban centers such as Maiduguri, Damaturu, Gombe, Bauchi, and Taraba to receive humanitarian assistance.

    The rainy season began normally in June/July in southern Yobe, and Borno. In localized areas the rainfall started two weeks earlier than normal. To the north of these states, however, prolonged dry spells in June and July have been observed in and around the Lake Chad region. With concern from the army that Boko Haram is able to hide in vegetation, farmers are restricted in most areas from planting tall growing crops, including millet, sorghum and maize – staple cereals for households in the region. Most households have changed to planting groundnuts, cowpeas and other cash crops. As up to three quarters of the population has left areas in this zone that are highly affect by conflict, the area planted is significantly down as well. People who remain are often the elderly, village defense groups and those households without the means to leave the region. Those who do remain in the area are only planting about one quarter to one fifth of the land they typically would; the fear of attack by the insurgents has limited the time people are willing to be in their fields and the distance they are willing to travel. Inputs such as seeds and fertilizer are limited as government subsidized fertilizer is not supplied for fear of it being stolen by insurgents. Satellite-derived estimations of crop growth in area show that vegetative growth is severely limited in the region (Figure 2).

    Most households in this area affected by the conflict have exhausted their household food stocks more quickly this year than they typically would. Their production over the last year was significantly below average. In some instances, households have either had their stocks burnt or stolen by the insurgents, or both. Interviews with key informants from the region indicated that while in a typical year households would still have own production stocks to consume in July, this year they have been severely limited for several months. Dietary diversity was also noted as being poor, with households resorting to bartering for basic condiments.

    Access to markets is also severely limited for those households that do have the means for food purchase. Market and trade flow and food stocks are generally below average due to roadblocks, security measures, border closures, and trader fears of attacks. Major urban markets in the area (including Maiduguri, Damaturu and Potiskum) are functioning at about half of their normal level. Semi-urban markets in the area including Gujba, in Yobe State, and Damboa, Bama, Konduga, Gwoza in Borno State are non-functioning or are functioning only at significantly below-average levels. For instance, Banki market in Borno State, famous for livestock trade with Cameroon, remains inactive.

    Poor households are also experiencing limited income earning opportunities. As the conflicts persists in the area, labor movement is restricted for fear of attack, while labor supply is below average in the area. Households are not seeking typical on farm wage labor opportunities for fear for their security while working in the open. Labor demand is below average as large scale farmers are not operating at typical levels. Petty trade activities continue as formal marketing systems are weak. Nonfood expenditures have increased relative to pre-conflict period due to lack of health facilities and medical personnel, and increased transportation cost as households have to travel longer distances to access medical and education services.

    Humanitarian assistance from the government through NEMA/SEMA is not able to cover the entire needs of the increasing displaced population. Access to people needing assistance in highly affected conflict areas is made difficult by the continuing conflict and assistance is often not able to be targeted. People who remain in highly affected conflict areas rely heavily on assistance from their community and from friends and relatives who have left the region but send back assistance. Due to limited market function, assistance from family and friends is typically given directly as food.

    Assumptions

    The most likely scenario for the July to December 2014 period is based on the following zone-level assumptions:

    • Conflict/population displacement: Civil insecurity relating to Boko Haram conflict, as well as the effects of the state of emergency, will continue at status quo levels. Population displacements will continue, both within the zone as well as to neighboring zones within Nigeria and neighboring countries (Niger, Chad, and Cameroon).
    • Rainy season: Despite early dry spells, rainfall accumulation is forecast to be near normal for the remainder of the season.
    • Trade flows: Trade flows for both cereals and livestock between the zone and neighboring countries (Niger, Chad, and Cameroon) will remain below-average due to the effects of civil insecurity and the state of emergency, road blocks and traders’ fears of attacks.
    • Household production: Through September, households will continue to have very limited household own production stocks. Beginning in October, though, households will begin their harvests. This harvests will be mostly limited to cash crops, though. While the proportion of cash crops planted is higher than typical, the area planted is still less than typical due to household security concerns.
    • Market access: Household access to markets will continue to be limited. Conflict is expected to disrupt households’ ability to trade at market through at least December.
    • Livestock demand: Livestock demand from within and outside the zone will be slightly below-average due to the effect of conflict in the area. While demand is expected to increase during Tabaski in September and December during the Christmas period, this will not be at the same levels seen in the rest of the country.
    • Livestock supply: Market supply will generally follow normal seasonal trends but will be below average due to the conflict in the area as pastoralist evade the zone and will move to other zones. Cattle rustling in the zone and other zones are also restricting the movement of livestock into the area, limiting market supply. Agropastoral households have been atypically relying on livestock sales for income, and household herd sizes are down.
    • Income sources: Income from cash crop sales will be down slightly as households find difficulty marketing their cash crops with limited market access. Sale of firewood, market related labor, construction work and petty trade will continue to be below average as well. Firewood sales have been restricted due to recent security challenges presented by the insurgents, particularly in Maiduguri, the epicenter of the conflict.
    • Off-season activities: Beginning in December, typical off-season labor opportunities, including farming and fishing, will be limited as conflict continues to limit participation in typical livelihoods.
    • Food prices: Food prices will continue to increase between July and September as the lean season peaks. They will decline slightly between October and December as the harvest begins. Prices will continue to remain above-average, though, between July and December.
    Most Likely Food Security Outcomes

    In affected areas in Borno and Yobe States, household food consumption is limited by below-average own production stocks, low seasonal revenues and limited market access. While household food access in northern parts of Borno and Yobe States is expected to improve in October with the main harvest, southern areas in Borno and Yobe strongly affected by the conflict are expected to see cereal harvests below what they saw last year. They will also face difficulty in marketing their cash crops due to limited market access. Households in these areas are expected to be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food insecurity through December as they continue to face difficulty in meeting their basic food needs.

     

    North-Central Maize, Sorghum and Cotton Livelihood Zone 10 in Borno and Adamawa States:

    Mubi North, Mubi South, Madagali and Michika (Adamawa state); Biu and Chibok, (Borno state)
    Current Situation

    Population displacements in this area in the north of Livelihoods Zone 10 are similar to those observed in the south of Livelihoods Zone 12, with many people moving to urban Mubi and Yola and to neighboring Bauchi, Gombe, Taraba States and neighboring Cameroon. As with the south of Zone 12, recent interviews with key informants from the area indicate that in areas highly impacted by civil insecurity, only about a quarter of the population remains. Those who do remain in the area are typically the elderly, those who cannot afford to leave, and village defense groups.

    The rainy season also began fairly normally in this area, with few dry spells noted at the beginning of the season. As the military is concerned that Boko Haram is able to use tall-growing crops to hide themselves, the planting of staple cereals, including maize and sorghum, is limited. Similarly, farmers constrain themselves to cultivate land close to their village for fear of attack by the insurgents. The limited population that remains in the area is only themselves planting about one quarter of what they would in a typical year.

    Similar to what is observed in the south of Livelihoods Zone 12, household stocks in this zone are exhausted much more quickly than they would be in a typical year. While households normally expect that their own production stocks would still be available for consumption in July, this year July own production stocks have been limited for a couple of months. Effective targeting of assistance in this area is also difficult due to the security situation. Households rely strongly on community assistance and assistance from friends and family.

    Market access in this zone is also severely limited. While urban markets in Mubi and Yola are open, they are functioning at levels near half of normal. Informal trade with Cameroon continues, and typical, southward trade routes within Nigeria are limited. Interviews with key informants from the zone indicate that in some rural areas, trade is limited at times to informal bartering.

    Households in this zone face limited income earning opportunities. On farm wage labor, typically an important source of income this time of year, is limited as households fear attacks while working on farms. Households are able, though, to continue fishing activities, which currently make up to 80 percent of their income. Local sales of cash crops also continue, though at significantly below-average levels.

    Assumptions

    The most likely scenario for the July to December 2014 period is based on the following zone-level assumptions:

    • Conflict/population displacement: Civil insecurity relating to Boko Haram conflict, as well as the effects of the state of emergency, will continue at status quo levels. Population displacements will continue, both within the zone as well as to neighboring zones within Nigeria and neighboring countries (Niger, Chad, and Cameroon).
    • Rainy season: Despite early dry spells, rainfall accumulation is forecast to be near normal for the remainder of the season.
    • Trade flows: Trade flows for both cereals and livestock between the zone and neighboring countries (Niger, Chad, and Cameroon) will remain below-average due to the effects of civil insecurity and the state of emergency, road blocks and traders’ fears of attacks.
    • Household production: Through September, households will continue to have very limited household own production stocks. Beginning in October, though, households will begin their harvests. This harvests will be mostly limited to cash crops, though. While the proportion of cash crops planted is higher than typical, the area planted is still less than typical due to household security concerns.
    • Market access: Household access to markets will continue to be limited. Conflict is expected to disrupt households’ ability to trade at market through at least December.
    • Livestock demand: Livestock demand from within and outside the zone will be slightly below-average due to the effect of conflict in the area. While demand is expected to increase during Tabaski in September and December during the Christmas period, this will not be at the same levels seen in the rest of the country.
    • Livestock supply: Market supply will generally follow normal seasonal trends but will be below average due to the conflict in the area as pastoralist evade the zone and will move to other zones. Cattle rustling in the zone and other zones are also restricting the movement of livestock into the area, limiting market supply. Agropastoral households have been atypically relying on livestock sales for income, and household herd sizes are down.
    • Income sources: Income from cash crop sales will be down slightly as households find difficulty marketing their cash crops with limited market access. Sale of firewood, market related labor, construction work and petty trade will continue to be below average as well. Firewood sales have been restricted due to recent security challenges presented by the insurgents, particularly in Maiduguri, the epicenter of the conflict.
    • Labor movements: Household migration for labor work to other zones within the country will be comparatively better than in the south of Livelihood Zone 12. This access to labor incomes will contribute to household food access for those who remain in the conflict zone as family members and friends send assistance back.
    • Off-season activities: Beginning in December, typical off-season labor opportunities, including farming and fishing, will be limited as conflict continues to limit participation in typical livelihoods.
    • Food prices: Food prices will continue to increase between July and September as the lean season peaks. They will decline slightly between October and December as the harvest begins. Prices will continue to remain above-average, though, between July and December.
    Most Likely Food Security Outcomes

    In conflict prone areas in Borno and Adamawa States in this area, households who are mainly subsistence farmers have significantly below-average food stocks due to the disruption of cropping activities last year. Their access to markets is limited due to below-average seasonal incomes and high staple food prices or limited functionality of markets in the area. Their food consumption is limited at a time when conflict limits access by humanitarian organizations. While the arrival of new harvests in October in the south of the zone is expected to improve food access, households in areas highly affected by conflict are expected to see harvest production below last year’s levels. Though their cash crop production is expected to be less impacted by the civil insecurity, they will continue to face difficulty in marketing their cash crop harvest. As with the south of Livelihoods Zone 12, households in this area are expected to continue to face Crisis (IPC Phase 3) through December.


    Events that Might Change the Outlook

    Table 1: Possible events over the next six months that could change the scenario

    Area

    Event

    Impact on food security outcomes

    National

    Prolonged dry spells

    • Below-average crop production levels
    • Traders withhold stocks during the peak of the lean season
    • Reduced pastoral resources (water and forage) for livestock
    • Reduced agricultural labor opportunities

    Above-normal levels of pest infestations

    • Below-average crop production levels
    • Traders withhold stocks during the peak of the lean season
    • Reduced pastoral resources (water and forage) for livestock
    • Reduced agricultural labor opportunities

    Above-average rainfall levels during the rainy season

    • Flood-related population displacements increase humanitarian assistance needs

    Political-related conflict surrounding the presidential election scheduled for the first quarter of 2015

    • Further reduce trade and economic activities and cause food prices to increase at a faster rate than is expected
    • Lead to increased population displacement and increased food assistance needs

    Borno, Yobe and Adamawa States

    Improvement in access for humanitarian assistance

    • Better targeted delivery of assistance
    • Increase food access
    • Reduced food related malnutrition prevalence

    Change in the level of conflict

    • Increase in market disruption
    • Further disruption to livelihoods
    • Shift in location of assistance needs

     

    Figures Seasonal Calendar for a Typical Year

    Figure 1

    Seasonal Calendar for a Typical Year

    Source: FEWS NET

    Current food security outcomes, July 2014

    Figure 2

    Current food security outcomes, July 2014

    Source: FEWS NET

    Figure 1. Cumulative fatalities attributable to the Boko Haram conflict

    Figure 3

    Figure 1.

    Source: Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project

    Figure 2. NDVI anomaly for northeast Nigeria, July 1-10, 2014

    Figure 4

    Figure 2.

    Source: USGS/FEWS NET

    Figure 2

    Source:

    To project food security outcomes, FEWS NET develops a set of assumptions about likely events, their effects, and the probable responses of various actors. FEWS NET analyzes these assumptions in the context of current conditions and local livelihoods to arrive at a most likely scenario for the coming eight months. Learn more here.

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