Skip to main content

Decline in market supplies and influx of refugees to eastern provinces contribute to deteriorating food security in Chad

  • Key Message Update
  • Chad
  • April 2024
Decline in market supplies and influx of refugees to eastern provinces contribute to deteriorating food security in Chad

Download the Report

  • Key Messages
  • Key Messages
    • The continuing crisis in Sudan continues to result in regular influxes of refugees and returnees into the host provinces in eastern Chad, where conflicts over access to resources and competition for opportunities are reported. With host household stocks depleted due to low production, the level of mutual assistance between host households and refugees is deteriorating significantly. The loss of livelihoods for refugees and returnees, coupled with the lack of employment opportunities, resulted in their dependence on humanitarian assistance. However, humanitarian organizations expressed the lack of resources to fill food consumption gaps observed among refugees and returnees. In Assoungha and Kimiti, the precarious situation of host households, who have exhausted their stocks, limits their access to food from purchases in the markets. In addition, the large numbers of Sudanese refugees and Chadian returnees who have lost their livelihoods exacerbate the food security conditions.  Host households and refugees cannot meet their food needs without food assistance; they are in Crisis! (IPC Phase 3!). Because of their dependence on the market, households in the Sahelian (Kanem and BEG) and Saharan (Ennedi West, Ennedi East, Borkou, and Tibesti) zones are affected by the decline in food supplies from Libya, leading to higher prices. The decline in opportunities, which reduces the purchasing power of poor and very poor households in the western Sahel and the Saharan zones, limits their food access from markets. As a result, their food consumption decreased, and they are in a state of Crisis (IPC Phase 3). With the off-season harvests, households in the Sudanian zone have access to off-season food products, which only enable them to satisfy their food needs, not their non-food expenses. They are in Stress (IPC Phase 2). 
    • In eastern Chad, despite the humanitarian operations, food distribution and cash transfers carried out during the first quarter of 2024 by the World Food Program (WFP) and its partners, benefiting 595,786 people, Sudanese refugees and host households are experiencing food consumption deficits (UNHCR). As a result of the influx of Sudanese refugees, food assistance needs continue to increase, while the Humanitarian Response Plan in Chad is only 35 percent funded by the end of 2023 (CARE). In addition, the scarcity of economic opportunities and the poor results of the 2023-2024 agricultural season are exacerbating the deterioration in food security for host households, refugees, and returnees. 
    • Off-season production is down from an average year due to the decline in cultivated areas and the delay in production cycles. With fuel prices rising because of the shortage, households' low purchasing power does not allow them to develop large areas for irrigation. As a result, low yields from planted areas decrease off-season production volumes. In the northern zone, rising fuel prices limit the use of available land for off-season crops. In the western Sahel (Kanem and BEG), the persistence of crop enemies, such as locusts and granivorous birds, delays the production cycles. 
    • The food supply is declining in the markets. The low production level during the agricultural season (rainfed and off-season) does not allow for a significant supply of the deficit areas in the Western Sahel. The availability of imported food products is also affected by the decline in flows from Libya due to the security situation at the borders and the closure of the border with Sudan. In addition, inter-regional flows of off-season products are declining due to higher fuel prices, which impacts transport costs. However, traders in the major cities continue to supply markets with off-season products, but the volumes of these flows are lower than in an average year due to high transport costs.   

    Recommended citation: FEWS NET. Chad Key Message Update April 2024: Decline in market supplies and influx of refugees to eastern provinces contribute to deteriorating food security in Chad, 2024.

    This Key Message Update provides a high-level analysis of current acute food insecurity conditions and any changes to FEWS NET's latest projection of acute food insecurity outcomes in the specified geography. Learn more here.

    Get the latest food security updates in your inbox Sign up for emails

    The information provided on this Website is not official U.S. Government information and does not represent the views or positions of the U.S. Agency for International Development or the U.S. Government.

    Jump back to top