Market Fundamentals

Guatemala Casual Labor Market Fundamentals

February 2019

IPC v3.0 Acute Food Insecurity Phase

1: Minimal
2: Stressed
3: Crisis
4: Emergency
5: Famine
Would likely be at least one phase worse without current or programmed humanitarian assistance
FEWS NET classification is IPC-compatible. IPC-compatible analysis follows key IPC protocols but does not necessarily reflect the consensus of national food security partners.

IPC v3.0 Acute Food Insecurity Phase

1: Minimal
2: Stressed
3+: Crisis or higher
Would likely be at least one phase worse without
current or programmed humanitarian assistance
FEWS NET classification is IPC-compatible. IPC-compatible analysis follows key IPC protocols but does not necessarily reflect the consensus of national food security partners.
FEWS NET Remote Monitoring countries use a colored outline to represent the highest IPC classification in areas of concern.

IPC v3.0 Acute Food Insecurity Phase

Presence countries:
1: Minimal
2: Stressed
3: Crisis
4: Emergency
5: Famine
Remote monitoring
countries:
1: Minimal
2: Stressed
3+: Crisis or higher
Would likely be at least one phase worse without
current or programmed humanitarian assistance
FEWS NET Remote Monitoring countries use a colored outline to represent the highest IPC classification in areas of concern.

Executive Summary

Income earned by poor and very poor households through casual labor constitutes an important component of livelihoods in many FEWS NET countries, with important implications for household purchasing power and food access. In this context, casual labor income is defined as income (cash or in-kind) earned through informal short-term or part-time employment in sectors such as agriculture, construction, or other seasonal, temporary, or migratory work. Gaining a better understanding of the levels and variations in income earned by poor households through casual labor activities is essential to improving FEWS NET’s evidence base used to understanding food access dynamics in focus areas and contributes to more robust food security analysis.

Between 2016-2017 FEWS NET designed and implemented a series of interrelated activities in 2016 and 2017 to better understand casual labor market dynamics, the factors that influence casual labor supply and demand, and to identify indicators and data sources that can be used to provide insight on the current or projected casual labor market situation. The report summarizes the findings from one set of activities focused on casual labor dynamics in Guatemala, where according to the 2016 Livelihoods Profiles, the poorest wealth groups throughout the country depend heavily (between 70 and 100 percent) on casual labor as an income source. The results will be used to inform monitoring efforts as inputs to scenario development for food security early warning.

The analysis in Guatemala focuses on an area of the country known as the “Dry Corridor,” an arid area extending from west to east across the central part of the country, comprising livelihood zones GT06, GT07, GT08, and GT10 (Figure 5). This area was prioritized because casual labor in these zones stands among the main sources of income for the poorer population, although typically characterized by erratic and low-value employment throughout the year. The Dry Corridor is often affected by food insecurity (IPC Phase 2 and Phase 3) and is regularly among areas of concern in FEWS NET’s food security monitoring efforts. 

The research supporting this report involved followed a mixed-methods, multi-stage approach. First, FEWS NET conducted a preliminary literature review of casual labor in Guatemala that allowed an initial understanding of the dynamics and key actors. 

Second, a field assessment conducted by FEWS NET staff between July and August 2017 to gain a deeper understanding of casual labor dynamics in the prioritized livelihood zones, assess the relevance of specific subsectors for employment opportunities for the poor and very poor; fill information gaps remaining from the literature review, triangulate information, and establish working relationships with relevant subsector-specific stakeholders. The assessment showed that seven subsectors employ the majority of casual laborers (migrant and non-migrant) in the livelihood zones analyzed. In order of importance, these are: coffee, vegetables (such as peas and French beans), sugarcane, Fruits (such as bananas, apples, and peaches), maize, beans, and construction. 

Third, the desk research and field assessment results were validated and complemented by a stakeholders’ workshop that took place in November 2017. This market fundamentals report presents the results of the analysis and stakeholder consultations. 

The results show that the vegetable and fruit subsectors have increased in importance in terms of annual casual labor demanded, partially filling up a seasonal gap in labor opportunities. This has reduced the movement of migrant workers in the livelihood zones analyzed. Despite the important role of the coffee and vegetable subsectors in the Guatemalan economy due to their high export levels and their high demand for casual labor (Table 1), these subsectors lack associated monitoring systems that capture casual labor dynamics. Conversely, well-established secondary data collection and reporting systems already exist to effectively monitor key indicators related to labor dynamics in the sugarcane and banana (with the highest demand among fruit) subsectors. FEWS NET staff will continue to solidify their relationships with these institutions to ensure the timely flow of these secondary data. The maize and bean subsectors depend most heavily on household labor, rather than hired casual labor, creating unique challenges for monitoring labor dynamics. While the use of casual labor is prominent in the construction sector, a better understanding of those dynamics and the associated monitoring strategy and data sources is an important area of future exploration. 

Based on the information learned from this process, key data gaps, and the possibilities for collaboration with key partners, FEWS NET proposes monitoring objectives and strategies in the short, medium, and long term. In the short term, FEWS NET will concentrate immediate future efforts in Guatemala to support monitoring efforts that are in the early stages by partner organizations in the coffee and vegetable subsectors. In the medium term, FEWS NET will engage with institutions monitoring labor market dynamics in the banana and sugarcane sectors. In the long term, FEWS NET will engage with both public and private organizations involved in monitoring the maize, beans, and construction sectors to identify tailored and relevant labor market monitoring strategies. The Monitoring Plan section of this report provides further details of the proposed monitoring indicators and approach.

About FEWS NET

The Famine Early Warning Systems Network is a leading provider of early warning and analysis on food insecurity. Created by USAID in 1985 to help decision-makers plan for humanitarian crises, FEWS NET provides evidence-based analysis on approximately 30 countries. Implementing team members include NASA, NOAA, USDA, USGS, and CHC-UCSB, along with Chemonics International Inc. and Kimetrica.
Learn more About Us.

Link to United States Agency for International Development (USAID)Link to the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) FEWS NET Data PortalLink to U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Link to National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth ObservatoryLink to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service, Climage Prediction CenterLink to the Climate Hazards Center - UC Santa BarbaraLink to KimetricaLink to Chemonics